Chapter X Crimes of Violation of Duty by Military Personnel

Chapter X Crimes of Violation of Duty by Military Personnel

Article 420. Acts by military personnel of endangering national and military interests in violation of their duties which are punishable by law are considered crimes in violation of duty by military personnel.

Article 421. Those who endanger military operations in defiance of orders in wartime shall be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than 10 years in prison. If they cause major losses in combat or battle, they shall be sentenced to not less than 10 years in prison, life imprisonment, or death.

Article 422. Those who endanger military operations by deliberately concealing military information, providing false military information, refusing to relay military orders, or relaying false military orders shall be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than 10 years in prison. If they cause major losses in combat or battle, they shall be sentenced to not less than 10 years in prison, life imprisonment, or death.

Article 423. Those who care for nothing but their own lives on the battleground and lay down their arms and surrender to the enemy of their own accord shall be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than 10 years in prison. If the circumstances are serious, they shall be sentenced to not less than 10 years in prison or life imprisonment.

Those who work for the enemy after their surrender shall be sentenced to not less than 10 years in prison, life imprisonment, or death.

Article 424. Those who flee from battle shall be sentenced to not more than three years in prison. If the circumstances are serious, they shall be sentenced to not less than three years in prison and not more than 10 years in prison. If they cause major losses in combat or battle, they shall be sentenced to not less than 10 years in prison, life imprisonment, or death.

Article 425. Commanders and personnel on duty who cause serious consequences by leaving their posts without permission or by neglecting their duties shall be sentenced to not more than three years in prison or criminal detention. In the event of especially serious consequences, they shall be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than seven years in prison.

Those who commit the crimes mentioned in the preceding paragraph in wartime shall be sentenced to not less than five years in prison.

Article 426. Those who obstruct commanders or personnel on duty from performing their duties through violence or intimidation shall be sentenced to not more than five years in prison or criminal detention. If the circumstances are serious, they shall be sentenced to not less than five years in prison. In the event of serious injuries or deaths, or other especially serious circumstances, they shall be sentenced to life imprisonment or death. If they commit these acts in wartime, they shall be given stiff punishment.

Article 427. Those who cause serious consequences by abusing their powers and directing their subordinates to engage in activities in violation of their duties shall be sentenced to not more than five years in prison or criminal detention. If the circumstances are especially serious, they shall be sentenced to not less than five years and not more than 10 years in prison.

Article 428. Commanders who cause serious consequences by turning away from battle or acting passively in combat in defiance of orders shall be sentenced to not more than five years in prison. In the event of major losses in combat or battle, or other especially serious circumstances, they shall be sentenced to not less than five years in prison.

Article 429. The commanders of those who cause friendly forces to suffer major losses by not coming to their rescue on the battleground, although they know that they are in imminent danger, are asking for rescue, and can be rescued, shall be sentenced to not more than five years in prison.

Article 430. Those who endanger national and military interests by leaving their posts without permission, fleeing the country, or defecting while outside the country during the course of performing official duties shall be sentenced to not more than five years in prison or criminal
detention.

If the circumstances are serious, they shall be sentenced to not less than five years in prison. In the event of desertion by aircraft or on board vessels, or other especially serious circumstances, those involved shall be sentenced to not less than 10 years in prison, life imprisonment, or death.

Article 431. Those who illegally obtain military secrets by stealing, spying, or buying such secrets shall be sentenced to not more than five years in prison. If the circumstances are serious, they shall be sentenced to not less than five years and not more than 10 years in prison. If the circumstances are especially serious, they shall be sentenced to not less than 10 years in prison. Those who steal, spy, or buy military secrets for overseas institutions, organizations, or personnel, and illegally provide such secrets to them shall be sentenced to not less than 10 years in prison, life imprisonment, or death.

Article 432. Those who leak military secrets by design or by accident in violation of laws and regulations on protecting state secrets shall be sentenced to not more than five years in prison or criminal detention if the circumstances are serious. If the circumstances are especially serious, they shall be sentenced to not less than five years and not more than 10 years in prison.

Those who commit the crime mentioned in the preceding paragraph in wartime shall be sentenced to not less than five years and not more than 10 years in prison. If the circumstances are especially serious, they shall be sentenced to not less than 10 years in prison or life imprisonment.

Article 433. Those who fabricate rumors to mislead people and shake the morale of troops in wartime shall be sentenced to not more than three years in prison. If the circumstances are serious, they shall be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than 10 years in prison.

Those who fabricate rumors to mislead people and shake the morale of troops in collusion with the enemy shall be sentenced to not less than 10 years in prison or life imprisonment. If the circumstances are especially serious, they may be sentenced to death.

Article 434. Those who inflict injuries on themselves to eschew military duties in wartime shall be sentenced to not more than three years in prison. If the circumstances are serious, they shall be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than seven years in prison.

Article 435. Those who desert their troops in violation of military service laws and regulations shall be sentenced to not more than three years in prison or criminal detention if the circumstances are serious. Those who commit the crime mentioned in the preceding paragraph in wartime shall be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than seven years in prison.

Article 436. Those who violate regulations on the use of weaponry in circumstances that are so serious as to constitute accidents through negligence that result in serious injuries or deaths or that cause other serious consequences shall be sentenced to not more than three years in prison or criminal detention. If the consequences are especially serious, they shall be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than seven years in prison.

Article 437. Those who cause serious consequences by changing the prescribed ways of using weaponry in violation of weaponry management regulations shall be sentenced to not more than three years in prison or criminal detention. If the circumstances are especially serious, they shall be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than seven years in prison.

Article 438. Those who steal or snatch weaponry or war materiel shall be sentenced to not more than five years in prison or criminal detention. If the circumstances are serious, they shall be sentenced to not less than five years and not more than 10 years in prison. If the circumstances are especially serious, they shall be sentenced to not less than 10 years in prison, life imprisonment, or death.

Those who steal or snatch firearms, ammunition, or explosives shall be punished in accordance with the provisions in Article 127 of this law.

Article 439. Those who illegally sell or transfer military weaponry shall be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than 10 years in prison. In the event of selling or transferring large quantities of weaponry, or other especially serious circumstances, they shall be sentenced to not less than 10 years in prison, life imprisonment, or death.

Article 440. Those who abandon weaponry in defiance of orders shall be sentenced to not more than five years in prison or criminal detention. In the event of abandoning important weaponry or large quantities of weaponry, or other serious circumstances, they shall be sentenced to not less than five years in prison.

Article 441. In the event of failure to promptly report loss of weaponry, or other serious circumstances, those involved shall be sentenced to not more than three years in prison or criminal detention.

Article 442. In the event of selling or transferring military real estate without permission in violation of relevant provisions, and if the circumstances are serious, the people directly responsible shall be sentenced to not more than three years in prison or criminal detention. If the circumstances are especially serious, they shall be sentenced to not less than three years and not more than 10 years in prison.

Article 443. Those who abuse their powers and maltreat their subordinates in vicious circumstances that result in serious injuries or give rise to other serious consequences shall be sentenced to not more than five years in prison or criminal detention. If deaths result, they shall be sentenced to not less than five years in prison.

Article 444. Persons directly responsible for the intentional abandonment of injured or sick servicemen on battlefields, if the case is serious, are to be sentenced to five years or fewer in prison.

Article 445. Those working in medical aid or medical treatment positions during wartime who refuse to save or treat seriously injured or critically sick servicemen when conditions permit them to do so are to be sentenced to five years or fewer in prison or put under criminal detention. If the case results in serious disability, death, or other grave consequences of the injured or sick servicemen, those responsible are to be sentenced to five to 10 years in prison.

Article 446. Those cruelly injuring innocent residents or looting innocent residents’ money or other property on military action areas are to be sentenced to five years or fewer in prison. If the case if serious, they are to be sentenced to five to 10 years in prison. If the case is extraordinarily serious, they are to be sentenced to 10 years or more in prison, given a life sentence, or sentenced to death.

Article 447. Those releasing prisoners of war without authorization are to be sentenced to five years or fewer in prison. Those releasing important prisoners of war or many prisoners of war, or those involved in other serious cases, are to be sentenced to five years or more in prison.

Article 448. Those mistreating prisoners of war, if the case is serious, are to be sentenced to three years or fewer in prison.

Article 449. During wartime, convicted servicemen who are sentenced to three years or fewer in prison, who pose no practical dangers, and whose sentence is suspended, are allowed to redeem themselves by good service. If they prove to have done meritorious service, their original sentence may be rescinded and they may not be considered to have committed a crime.

Article 450. This chapter applies to active duty military officers, civilian cadres, soldiers, and cadets with military status of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army [PLA]; active duty military officers, civilian cadres, soldiers, and cadets with military status in the Chinese People’s Armed Police; and personnel of the reserve force and other personnel carrying out military tasks.

Article 451. Wartime as mentioned in this chapter refers to the time after the state has declared the state of war, troops have been assigned with combat missions, or when the country is suddenly attacked by enemy.

The time during which troops carry out martial law missions or handle emergency violence is considered wartime.

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