SPC interpretation on terrorist financing and money laundering

A SPC interpretation on terrorist financing and money laundering has become effective on Wednesday November 11.

The interpretation clarifies the wording of articles 120 (terrorist financing) and 191 (money laundering) of the Criminal Law. The full text is available at the end of this post.

Terrorist financing

Article 120 (bis) Any individual who provides funds to a terrorist organization or individuals who commit terrorist activities (…)

“Providing funds” has been interpreted extensively, as covering the direct provision of funds or supplies, but also the aiding of terrorist organization by providing “spaces” 场所 and other material advantages (物质便利)

“Terrorist organizations or individuals” has been interpreted as referring to those who prepare or carry out a terrorist attack, or premeditate 预谋 it.

Money laundering

This offence can be punished only if the person who transforms illegal income into “legitimate” funds is actually aware that income was obtained illegally.

“Article 191. Where anyone who obviously knows that any incomes are obtained from any drug-related crime, organizational crime of any gangland, terrorist crime, crime of smuggling, crime of corruption or bribery, crime of disrupting the financial management order (…)

The SPC has specified the circustances in which it is assumed that a person knew about the illegal origin of proceeds. “Obviously knows” refers to any of the following:

* assisting the transfer of property or converting property the defendant knows to have been obtained illegally by a third person.

* assisting the transfer of property or converting property through illegal channels without justification

* accepting property at a price manifestly lower than its market value without justification

* assisting the transfer of property or converting property without justification, and receiving commissions above market value

* assisting third persons in depositing huge amounts of cash into several different bank account, or frequently transferring money between bank accounts without justification

* assisting close relatives or other persons with whom the defendant has a close relationship in transferring or converting property that does not correspond to their occupation or financial situation.

* other circumstance in which it can be considered that the defendant obviously knew about the illicit origin of property

(providing that no evidence proving the defendant lack of knowledge of these circumstances exists)

Disguising or concealing the origin or nature of any crime-related income or the proceeds generated therefrom by any other means” has been interpreted as providing assistance to the transfer or conversion of illicit income and the proceeds generated therefrom through any of the following:

* mortgages, leases, trade, investments and other means

* shopping centres, hotels, entertainment venues and other high-cash turnover industries

* fraudulent transactions, financial misstatements, bogus bonds and other means.

* trade in lottery tickets and other similar methods

* gambling

* the carrying, transporting or sending to and from China.

* other methods

————————————————————————————————————————

【发布单位】最高人民法院
【发布文号】法释〔2009〕15号
【发布日期】2009-11-04
【生效日期】2009-11-11
【失效日期】———–
【所属类别】国家法律法规
【文件来源】中国法院网

最高人民法院关于审理洗钱等刑事案件具体应用法律若干问题的解释

(法释〔2009〕15号)

  《最高人民法院关于审理洗钱等刑事案件具体应用法律若干问题的解释》已于2009年9月21日由最高人民法院审判委员会第1474次会议通过,现予公布,自2009年11月11日起施行。

  二○○九年十一月四日  

  最高人民法院关于审理洗钱等刑事案件具体应用法律若干问题的解释

  (2009年9月21日最高人民法院审判委员会第1474次会议通过)

  为依法惩治洗钱,掩饰、隐瞒犯罪所得、犯罪所得收益,资助恐怖活动等犯罪活动,根据刑法有关规定,现就审理此类刑事案件具体应用法律的若干问题解释如下:

  第一条 刑法第一百九十一条、第三百一十二条规定的“明知”,应当结合被告人的认知能力,接触他人犯罪所得及其收益的情况,犯罪所得及其收益的种类、数额,犯罪所得及其收益的转换、转移方式以及被告人的供述等主、客观因素进行认定。

  具有下列情形之一的,可以认定被告人明知系犯罪所得及其收益,但有证据证明确实不知道的除外:

  (一)知道他人从事犯罪活动,协助转换或者转移财物的;

  (二)没有正当理由,通过非法途径协助转换或者转移财物的;

  (三)没有正当理由,以明显低于市场的价格收购财物的;

  (四)没有正当理由,协助转换或者转移财物,收取明显高于市场的“手续费”的;

  (五)没有正当理由,协助他人将巨额现金散存于多个银行账户或者在不同银行账户之间频繁划转的;

  (六)协助近亲属或者其他关系密切的人转换或者转移与其职业或者财产状况明显不符的财物的;

  (七)其他可以认定行为人明知的情形。

  被告人将刑法第一百九十一条规定的某一上游犯罪的犯罪所得及其收益误认为刑法第一百九十一条规定的上游犯罪范围内的其他犯罪所得及其收益的,不影响刑法第一百九十一条规定的“明知”的认定。

  第二条 具有下列情形之一的,可以认定为刑法第一百九十一条第一款第(五)项规定的“以其他方法掩饰、隐瞒犯罪所得及其收益的来源和性质”:

  (一)通过典当、租赁、买卖、投资等方式,协助转移、转换犯罪所得及其收益的;

  (二)通过与商场、饭店、娱乐场所等现金密集型场所的经营收入相混合的方式,协助转移、转换犯罪所得及其收益的;

  (三)通过虚构交易、虚设债权债务、虚假担保、虚报收入等方式,协助将犯罪所得及其收益转换为“合法”财物的;

  (四)通过买卖彩票、奖券等方式,协助转换犯罪所得及其收益的;

  (五)通过赌博方式,协助将犯罪所得及其收益转换为赌博收益的;

  (六)协助将犯罪所得及其收益携带、运输或者邮寄出入境的;

  (七)通过前述规定以外的方式协助转移、转换犯罪所得及其收益的。

  第三条 明知是犯罪所得及其产生的收益而予以掩饰、隐瞒,构成刑法第三百一十二条规定的犯罪,同时又构成刑法第一百九十一条或者第三百四十九条规定的犯罪的,依照处罚较重的规定定罪处罚。

  第四条 刑法第一百九十一条、第三百一十二条、第三百四十九条规定的犯罪,应当以上游犯罪事实成立为认定前提。上游犯罪尚未依法裁判,但查证属实的,不影响刑法第一百九十一条、第三百一十二条、第三百四十九条规定的犯罪的审判。

  上游犯罪事实可以确认,因行为人死亡等原因依法不予追究刑事责任的,不影响刑法第一百九十一条、第三百一十二条、第三百四十九条规定的犯罪的认定。

  上游犯罪事实可以确认,依法以其他罪名定罪处罚的,不影响刑法第一百九十一条、第三百一十二条、第三百四十九条规定的犯罪的认定。

  本条所称“上游犯罪”,是指产生刑法第一百九十一条、第三百一十二条、第三百四十九条规定的犯罪所得及其收益的各种犯罪行为。

  第五条 刑法第一百二十条之一规定的“资助”,是指为恐怖活动组织或者实施恐怖活动的个人筹集、提供经费、物资或者提供场所以及其他物质便利的行为。

  刑法第一百二十条之一规定的“实施恐怖活动的个人”,包括预谋实施、准备实施和实际实施恐怖活动的个人。

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