Guide on Developing the Sharing Economy – Opinion-solicitation draft

[Editor’s Note. The following, and rough, translation of the National Development and Reform Commission Guide was edited on March 4, 2017 following Jamie P. Horsley‘s insightful comments ]

The National Development and Reform Commission of the PRC has published an opinion-solicitation draft of the “Guide on Developing the Sharing Economy”. Comments are to be sent to the Commission by March 6, 2017 (link here).

The Guide sets forth the broad principles that will regulate the development of an entirely new sector of the world economy, one which by definition knows no geographical limits. Generally speaking, in its current version the Guide already brings a meaningful contribution to the making and/or evolution of transnational regulatory standards. My comments on the Guide will be published very soon.

The Chinese version of the Guide and a very rough English translation are posted below.

sharing
Sharing Economy. Source: Wikipedia

分享经济发展指南

(征求意见稿)

分享经济是新一轮科技革命和产业变革催生的新业态新模式。加快分享经济发展,能够有效提高资源配置效率,对推动供给侧结构性改革,落实创新驱动发展战略,进一步促进大众创业、万众创新,培育经济发展新动能,具有重要意义。近年来,我国分享经济创新活跃,发展迅速,显示出巨大发展活力与潜力。但同时,也存在认识不统一、制度不适应、保障不健全等诸多问题,不少地方和部门对发展分享经济还存在疑虑和担心,分享经济发展面临着不少挑战。为加强预期引导,优化发展环境,促进分享经济发展,特制定本指南。

一、【基本内涵】分享经济主要是指利用网络信息技术,通过互联网平台将分散资源进行优化配置,提高资源利用效率的一种新型经济形态,正在加快驱动资产权属、生产组织、服务供给、就业模式和消费方式的变革,代表着当前和今后一段时期新的发展方向。

二、【主要特征】分享经济强调资源集约利用和信用约束,倡导协同生产和按需使用的理念;强调供给侧与需求侧的弹性匹配,实现动态及时、精准高效的供需对接;强调消费与生产的深度融合,形成人人参与、人人享有的发展模式。

三、【总体思路】以支持创新创业发展为核心,按照包容创新,审慎监管,强化保障的原则,允许和鼓励各类市场主体积极探索分享经济新业态新模式。加快形成适应分享经济特点的政策环境,进一步增强政策包容性和灵活性,加强分类指导,降低准入门槛,维护公平竞争,提高放管服水平,降低分享经济发展的政策风险。鼓励创新监管模式,引导和支持有条件的地区和行业先行先试。

四、【市场准入】充分考虑分享经济跨界融合特点,避免用旧办法管制新业态,破除行业壁垒和地域限制。合理界定不同行业领域分享经济的业态属性,分类细化管理,防止一刀切。要坚持底线思维,对于涉及生命财产安全、社会稳定、文化安全、金融风险等方面的业态和模式,严格规范准入条件。清理制约分享经济发展的行政许可、商事登记等事项,进一步放宽资源提供者在市场准入方面的条件限制。加强部门与地方制定出台政策、开展行业指导的衔接协调。

五、【监管机制】政府部门要包容创新,完善分享经济发展行业指导,充分利用云计算、物联网、大数据等技术,创新网络业务监管手段,加强事中事后监管。探索实施线上线下一体化管理,加快网络交易监管服务平台建设,完善与分享经济发展相适应的监管机制。

六、【创新治理】探索建立政府、平台企业、行业协会以及资源提供者和公众共同参与的分享经济多方治理机制。平台企业要加强内部治理和安全保障,强化社会责任担当,严格规范经营。行业协会和社会组织要推动出台行业服务标准和自律公约,大力拓展资源提供者和公众参与治理渠道,完善社会监督。

七、【公共服务】大力推动政府部门数据共享和公共数据资源开放,提升服务效率,降低服务成本。在公共基础设施规划建设中,充分考虑分享经济发展需求。大力推动政府公共服务资源分享,增加公共服务供给。鼓励企业、高校、科研机构分享仪器、设备、实验平台、科研成果与信息等创新资源。完善政府采购政策,加大对分享经济产品服务政府购买力度,扩大公共服务需求。

八、【信用体系】积极发挥全国统一的信用信息平台、国家企业信用信息公示系统和金融信用信息基础数据库作用,推进各类信用信息平台无缝对接,打破信息孤岛,建立政府和企业互动的信息共享合作机制,充分利用互联网信用数据,对现有征信体系进行补充完善。积极引导平台企业利用大数据监测、用户双向评价、第三方认证、第三方信用评级等手段和机制,健全相关主体信用记录,强化对资源提供者的身份认证、信用评级和信用管理,提升源头治理能力。依法加强信用记录、风险预警、违法失信行为等信息在线披露,大力推动守信联合激励和失信联合惩戒。平台企业要健全信用信息保全机制,具有为实施失信惩戒提供协查的义务。

九、【法律法规】针对分享经济发展实际,对现有相关法律法规进行评估和完善,加强释法、修法工作,及时调整不适应分享经济发展和管理的现行法规与政策规定。在相关立法工作中,根据国家有关战略部署和分享经济发展特点进行设计,加强制度与监管的适应性。根据需要及时研究制定分领域分享经济管理办法。

十、【权益保护】依法严厉打击泄露用户个人信息、损害消费者权益等行为,引导平台企业建立健全消费者投诉和纠纷解决机制。鼓励行业组织依法合规探索设立分享经济用户投诉和维权的第三方平台。研究制定适应分享经济特点的保险政策等,积极利用保险等市场机制保障消费者权益。

十一、【劳动关系】研究完善适应分享经济特点的灵活就业人员社会保险参保缴费措施,切实加强劳动者权益保障。加大宣传力度,提升劳动者的自我保护意识。对与从业者签订劳动合同的平台企业,以及依托平台企业灵活就业、自主创业的人员,按规定落实相关就业创业扶持政策。

十二、【税收政策】研究完善适合分享经济特点的税收征管措施。依法加强平台企业与税务系统的对接,加快推进线上线下一体化管理。推广应用电子发票,不断提高分享经济纳税服务的网络化水平。

十三、【统计监测】建立健全反映分享经济的统计调查指标和评价指标。充分运用大数据等信息技术手段,创新统计调查方法,推动部门统计信息共享,多渠道收集相关数据,完善统计核算,科学评估分享经济在稳定增长、促进就业、增加收入、扩大消费等方面的贡献。

十四、【主体责任】根据分享经济的不同形态和特点,科学合理界定平台企业和资源提供者的责任义务,明确追责标准和履责范围。研究建立平台企业履职尽责情况与依法获得责任豁免的联动协调机制。平台企业应建立相应规则,严格落实网络主体资格审查,保护消费者权益,加强个人信息和网络数据保护,积极协助政府监督执法。资源提供者应履行信息公示义务,积极协助权利人维权和配合相关调查。

十五、【安全有序】在鼓励分享经济市场开展有效竞争基础上,加强对平台企业垄断行为的监管与防范,引导分享经济有序发展,营造各类主体公平竞争的外部环境。促进对分享经济发展涉及的专利、版权、商标等知识产权的创造和运用,加大对知识产权侵权假冒行为的打击力度。增强安全意识,强化安全管理和防护。

十六、【推进落实】各地区、各部门要切实加强对分享经济的深入研究,积极探索实践,因地制宜,不断完善发展环境,务实推进分享经济健康快速发展。国家发展改革委将会同相关部门,依托互联网+”行动部际联席会议制度,成立分享经济专家咨询委员会,加强分享经济的统筹协调,明确分领域的牵头部门和责任主体,及时评估解决监管中发现的问题,提出合理化建议。

注:黑括号说明内容印发时删除。

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Guide to Developing the Sharing Economy

(Draft for soliciting opinions)

The sharing economy is a new industrial format and a new industrial model produced by the revolution in science and technology and by industrial transformation.Speeding up development of the sharing economy can effectively improve the efficiency of resource allocation, and it has a major significance in structural reforms to boost the supply side, implementing and innovation-driven development strategy, further promoting mass entrepreneurship, mass innovation, fostering a new momentum in economic development.In recent years, the sharing economy, has developed rapidly in China, showing great vitality and potential.But at the same time, there are also several problems as a lack of unified awareness, unsuitability of systems, imperfect guarantees. Many localities and departments still have doubts and concerns about the sharing economy, and the development of the sharing economy is facing many challenges. The present Guide is enacted to enhance preventive guidance, optimize the development environment, promote the development of the sharing economy.

1. Basic MeaningSharing economy mainly refers to the optimized allocation of dispersed resources through the use of network information technology and the Internet. It is a new pattern to improve the efficiency of resource allocation. It is speeding up and driving change in asset ownership, the organization of production, service supply, employment models, consumption patterns, and it represents a new direction of development for the present and the near future. .

2. Main FeaturesThe sharing economy emphasizes the intensive use of resources and credit constraints, promoting the concept of collaborative production and on-demand use. It emphasizes elasticity in matching the supply and demand sides, it realizes a timely, precise and highly effective encounter between supply and demand. It stresses the deep integraton of consumption and production, it forms a developmental model in which all participate and from which all benefit.

3. General IdeaWith supporting innovation and entrepreneurship development as the core, according to the principle of “inclusive innovation, prudent regulation and strengthening guarantees”, allow and encourage all kinds of market entities to actively explore new models and new formats of the sharing economy.Speed up the creation of a policy environment that meets the characteristics of the sharing economy, and further enhance the inclusiveness and flexibility of policies, strengthen guidance according to categories, reduce barriers to entry, safeguard fair competition and improve the level of “pipe service” and lower the policy risks for the sharing economy.Encouraging innovation of supervision models, guide and support the pioneering implementation and trials in those areas and industries where conditions exist.

4 Market EntryFully consider share the characteristics of cross-border integration of the sharing economy, to avoid using old methods to manage new industrial formats, and get rid of trade barriers and geographic boundaries.Reasonably define the properties of the sharing economy in different industries, management according to classification, and avoid adopting across the board solution.One must adhere to the bottom line of thinking, and severely regulating entry conditions to those industriies and models involving safety of life and property, social stability, cultural safety, financial risk.Eliminate the administrative permits, business registrations etc. that limit the development of the sharing economy, further relax those conditions limiting market entry of resource providers.Strengthen the launch of policies by departments and localities, develop a coordinated and cohesive guidance to the industry.

5. Supervision Mechanisms Government departments must tolerate innovation, perfect industry guidance on the sharing economy, making full use of technologies such as cloud computing, Internet of things, big data, innovate the means of network businesses supervision, strengthen ex durante and ex post supervision. Explore the implementation of integrate offline and online management, strengthen the construction of a platform to supervise network transactions, perfect supervision mechanisms relevant to developing the sharing economy.

6. Innovating GovernanceExplore the consgtruction of multi-stakeholders governance mechanisms coordinating government, enterprise platforms, industry associations, resource providers, with the participation of the public.Platform enterprise must strengthen internal governance and safety guarantees, reinforce their social responsibility, and strictly regulate their activities.Industry associations and social organizations must promote the launch of industry service standards and self-regulation codes, and vigorously develop channels of participation and governance from resource providers and the public, and perfect supervision by society.

7. Public Service Vigorously promote open government data-sharing and the openness of public data sources, enhance service efficiency and reduce service costs. Fully consider the developmental needs of the sharing economy in the planning and onstruction of public infrastructure.Vigorously promote sharing government’s public service resources, and increase the supply of public services. Encourage the sharing of instruments, equipment, expriment platform, research results, information and other innovation resources by enterprises, universities and research institutionsImprove government procurement policies, increase the government’s purchasing power of products and services from the sharing economy, widen the demand for public services.

8. Credit System Enthusiastically develop a national unified platform on credit information, the use of the  national enterprise credit information publicity system and financial credit information database. Advance the seamless integration of all credit information platforms, break isolation of inforation, construct a cooperative, information-sharing mechanism between government and enterprises, fully use internet credit data, to complement the existing credit reporting system. Enthusiastically guide platform enterprises data monitoring, user evaluation, third party certification, third party credit evaluation and other means and mechanisms. Establish robust credit records of relevant subjects, strenghten identity verification, credit evalutation and credit management of resource providers, raise the capability to govern sources.Strengthen the online disclosure of credit histories, risk warning, information on misdemeanors and loss of credit according to the law, vigorously promote incentive to credit trustworthiness and joint discipline mechanisms of loss of credit.Platform enterprises must construct credit information preservation systems, and they have the duty to provide assistance in the enfrocement of punishments for loss of credit.

9. Laws and RegulationsAssess and improve existing laws and regulations’ relevance to the reality of the development of the sharing economy, strengthen the work of legal explanation and amendment, adjust current legislation and policy regulation on the development and management of the sharing economy. In the related legislative work, conduct planning according to relevant state strategic deployments and the developmental features of the sharing economy, strengthen the flexibility of systems and oversight.Research and enact management methods for the sharing economy according to needs, and in a prompt fashion.

10. Protecting Rights and Interests Severely crack down on leaking personal information, conducts that damage the interests of consumers, and guide enterprises to build up a sound consumer complaints and dispute resolution mechanisms.Encourage industry organizations’ exploration of the establishment a third-party platform for consumer complaints and rights protection, according to the law.Research the development of insurance policies suited to the features of the sharing economy, and enthusiastically use insurance and other market mechanisms to protect the rights and interests of consumers.

11. Labour RelationsResearch how to perfect lively measures employees’ contribution to social insurance coherent with the features of the sharing economy, strenghten the protection of labourers’ rights and interests.Step up publicity to enhance employees’ awareness of self-protection.Implement relevant policies of support to entrepreneurship in accordance with regulations, towards platform enterprises who sign labour contracts with employees, flexible work that relies on platform enterprises, and freelancers.

12. Tax Policy Research how to perfect tax collection measures suited to the characteristics of the sharing economy. Strengthen the linkages between tax institutions and platform enterprises, accelerating the integration of online and offline management.Promote the use of electronic invoices, continuously improve the informatization level of tax service.

13. Statistical MonitoringEstablish a sound system of statistical data and evaluation indicators on the sharing economy. Fully use big data and other information technologies to innovate methods of statistical survey, promote sharing statistical data among government departments, collect relevant data through multiple channels, perfect the assessment of statistical data, and scientifically evaluate the contribution of the sharing economy to increasing stability, promoting employment, raising revenues and expanding consumption.

14. Responsibility of AgentsScientifically and reasonably determine the responsibilities and duties of platform enterprises and resource providers according to the different forms and characteristics of the sharing economy, and clearly define accountability standards and the range of responsibilities. Research how to establish a mechanism to coordinate due diligence by platform enterprises and their immunity from liability.Platform enterprises must establish relevant rules, strictly enforce examination of network agents, protect the rights and interests of consumers, strengthen the protection of personal information and network data, enthusiastically assist the government in supervision and enforcement.Resource providers must comply with information disclosure duties, enthusiastically assist rights holders and cooperate in relevant investigation.

15. Safety and Order On the basis of encouraging an effective market competition in the sharing economy, strengthen monitoring and prevention of monopolitistic practiced by platform enterprises, guide the orderly development of the sharing economy, and create a fair competition environment for all kinds of subjects.Promote the innovation and use of patents, copyrights, trademarks, and other intellectual property involve in the shared economy, increase the efforts to combat piracy.Enhance awareness of safety, strengthen safety management and protection.

16 Accelerating ImplementationAll localities and departments must earnestly strengthen research on the sharing economy, actively explore practices, use methods which are in line with local circumstances, to constantly improve the development environemnt, and pragmatically push for a rapid and healthy development of the sharing economy. The national development and Reform Commission in conjunction with the relevant departments, relies on “Internet +” Inter-Ministerial Joint Conference system, sets up the Advisory Committee on the Sharing Economy, strengthens coordination of the sharing economy, clarifies the lead departments and the responsibility of subjects, performs timely assessments to solve problmes in monitoring, advances prooposals of rationalization.

Omissis

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